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Sciatic Pain Treatment – Signs of Underlying Medical Concerns

Sciatic Pain TreatmentIf you suffer from sciatica, you will know just how intense the pain is. It infiltrates into all areas of life because the movement is restricted and even, sitting down for long periods can be excruciating. Unfortunately, it can take up to 6-weeks for improvement to be noted and medical treatment may be necessary during that time. The sciatic nerve is the largest single nerve in the body and it has various nerve roots that branch out from the spine which combines and make up the sciatic nerve. Pain occurs when compression of the nerve occurs at the point of origin.

Although people tend to think of sciatica as being a stand-alone condition, it is often a symptom of other underlying medical conditions and so, seeking medical advice is paramount.

 

These other conditions include:

  • Lumber herniated disc – often called ruptured disc, protruding discs or slipped disc. It occurs when the inner material of the disc herniates through the outer layer and this creates a pinching/irritation of the nerve.
  • Lumbar spinal stenosis – this is related to the natural aging process of the spine and commonly affects those over the age of 60. It often coincides with arthritis of the spine which is also a contributing factor for sciatica. There is a narrowing of the spinal canal which may occur through a bulging disc, enlarged facet joints or, soft tissue overgrowth.
  • Degenerative disc disease – again, this occurs with age and is generally diagnosed when inflammatory proteins from within are exposed. These irritate the nerve root.
  • Sacroiliac joint dysfunction – when this joint becomes irritated, it can also aggravate the L5 nerve. This nerve which is located on the top of the sacroiliac joint will cause pain similar to sciatica and certainly, leg pain will occur.
  • Isthmic spondylolisthesis – where a small stress fracture occurs, one vertebrae may slip onto another and the nerve is pinched leading to sciatic pain.

The symptoms of sciatica are intense. Pain radiates down the leg, potentially affecting the foot and the toes. There may be a burning or tingling session or even a sense of numbness. Weakness in the leg may also make it difficult to move. There may be a consistent pain in one buttock and, generally, the pain of sciatica will increase when in a seated position.

Sciatica rarely occurs before the person is 20-years of age and, typically develops when someone is in their 40’s or 50’s. It is a common condition and potentially, affects over 40% of the population. This is an injury that does not just occur but rather develops and this is why medical advice is important to discover any underlying issues.

 

Additional reasons as to why sciatica occurs include:

  • Muscle strain – where there is inflammation or muscle spasm this can increase pressure to the nerve root.
  • Scar tissue – where scar tissue compresses a lumbar nerve root, the symptoms of sciatica can be experienced
  • Pregnancy – due to weight gain, hormonal changes and changes to the center of gravity, this can also lead to sciatica being experienced.

 

Sciatica Pain Treatment

In the main, treatment will include rest and applying hot or cold compresses along with anti-inflammatory over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen. Following a medical diagnosis, anti-seizure medications or muscle relaxants may be prescribed to help alleviate the symptoms. To aid recovery, you may be offered physical therapy which helps to strengthen the muscles of the back and improves posture. Flexibility will also be reviewed. If the pain is incredibly intense, you may be offered steroid injections to help reduce consistent pain but, these do not last for long periods.

 

Sometimes, surgery is required, and this could be to remove any bone spurs or even parts of any herniated disc so to avoid compression of the sciatic nerve. Surgery will require rest and recuperation over a period thereafter. Stem cell treatments offer much for sciatic nerve recovery and these cells when injected into the relevant place have been shown to heal damage to tissue and it does this by creating new healthy cells. Although typically, sciatic pain treatment can be self-managed, there are options where health concerns require medical assistance.

 

Wear and Tear – How Osteoarthritis Affects the Hip Joints

Hip joints stiff and creaking? Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that can affect anyone, but it is certainly most common in those who are over the age of 45 years, often affecting those joints which are impacted by wear and tear. Millions of people are affected by this condition across the globe and as a ball and socket joint, the hips usually have an excellent range of movement, but osteoarthritis is painful and limiting. It is a serious health condition as osteoarthritis breaks down the rubbery cartilage tissue (made from mainly proteins and water) which covers the ends of the bones. Once cartilage is damaged, the body is unable to make more. The joint itself is surrounded by a fibrous sleeve called the capsule and the capsule lining is called the synovium and it is this that produces the synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the actual joint.

 

Hip joint painThe hips are weight-bearing joints. Degeneration of the joint may cause the person to limp, with pain radiating down the body, often, losing weight may help to take some stress away from the joint but this will not be the cause of the pain. Osteoarthritis in the hip joint is about one third as common as arthritis in the knees. It can be aggravated by over-use even in the home, walking upstairs as a prime example. Stiffness and accompanying pain are the first symptoms but, during advanced stages, deformities to the joint can even result in the legs becoming different lengths.

 

Pain in the hip joint does not always mean osteoarthritis, it could be inflamed or a strained tendon perhaps, through overdoing exercise. In this case, pain usually dissipates in a day or two. Pain can occur in the groin, in the front of the thigh muscle and even in the knee joint. Sometimes, there is a pain in the buttocks too. If the pain worsens, or, where there has been trauma to the hip by way of a fall, then, medical advice should be sought.

 

Other hip joint conditions include:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Paget’s disease
  • Hip fractures

There are many reasons as to why the pain could occur. The joints may not have formed correctly when younger, there could be genetic issues in the cartilage. Pain can manifest in different locations and be either sharp or a dull ache.

Symptoms include:

  • Stiffness when first out of bed
  • Stiffness when sitting for long periods of time
  • Swelling, tenderness or pain in the hip joint
  • Grating feeling or sound in the hip
  • Restricted movement

 

Correct diagnosis is important. An x-ray is usually taken which may show the narrowing of the joint. A physical examination is likely. In the early stages, painkillers may help – paracetamol or, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen. Physical therapy can be extremely useful in keeping mobility in the hip, exercises can stretch and strengthen as well as stabilizing. A CT scan or MRI scan may be requested for more in-depth analysis. Steroid injections may help if the hip joint is caused by inflammation and these are often given with anesthetic. Hip replacement surgery was often the outcome and when the hip bone was fractured.

Stem cell treatments can be highly useful for arthritic hip joints and as they are primitive cells already present in the body, they can help to form the necessary cells when added into the painful and damaged area. Once extracted from fat deposits or from bone marrow, they are less likely to be rejected and can even increase regeneration of the joint. Importantly, stem cell treatments are without known side-effects and can also prevent further damage of the hip joint. When hip joints are painful and restricting movement, it is best to seek professional advice.

 

The Potential to Battle Lyme Disease Caused Through Ticks

lyme diseaseLyme disease is not something that most people expect to get but for those with a love of nature and the great outdoors, it can be easily transmitted following a bite from a tick. It is prevalent in wooded areas and anyone who spends a great deal of time outside – children or those adults who love hiking etc. are all at risk and therefore, observation is key. The best defense is through covering up. It’s less easy for ticks to penetrate the skin when long trousers are worn, and long-sleeved tops can help prevent the tick from accessing bare skin. Where possible, stick to designated trails, avoiding walking through areas with long grass or bushes. It can help to use insect repellents, spraying onto clothes which should deter ticks but, they can cling to clothes for long periods of time so it’s best to double-check after being outside.  Time is of the essence when it comes to removing ticks and as they are so small, it is important to do a thorough search. If a tick is embedded, remove carefully with tweezers ensuring the whole tick is removed.  Apply antiseptic directly to the bite afterward.

In the US, approximately 30,000 cases are reported but this may not be the extent of the problem and it is anticipated that up to 329,000 people could be affected by Lyme disease each year. Transmitted via black-legged or deer ticks, the bacteria are called Borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia mayonii. For the Lyme disease to occur, an infected tick must bite, and the bacteria pass through the skin into the bloodstream. Vigilance is important because the tick would have to be attached for a prolonged period – between 36-48 hours and although you would think that the ticks would be obvious, these ticks are more noticeable when have been feeding and by then, with their swollen body’s, they are likely to have already passed the bacteria into the bloodstream. It can take a while for symptoms to manifest but, it’s best to seek medical advice as soon as is possible.

Symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • A headache
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Rash

If it is not treated, complications can occur such as:

  • Facial palsy
  • Neuropathy
  • Lyme arthritis
  • Impaired memory
  • Heart rhythm issues

 

These symptoms can increase substantially causing arthritic pain and swelling, usually in the knees. There may be a severe headache and stiffness in the neck area. Heart palpitations may be experienced and muscle tone sagging with facial drooping. Later, inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord with shooting pains or tingling in the feet and hands or both.

Treatment in the early stages will usually ensure full recovery.

Stem cell therapy can be used to help with the stimulation of new cells and this can be useful to replace those that have been damaged or lost by the Lyme disease infection. Consider them the building blocks where they can help to regenerate. They can also prevent or reverse neurological damage and even, eliminate the bacteria.

Kelly Osbourne contracted a rare form of Lyme’s disease and even though the tick was removed, years later, following a long illness, she was finally diagnosed as having stage 111 neurological disease. After many different types of treatment and medication, she underwent stem cell therapy, “so my body could fight off and get rid of the disease on its own.” She did it for two weeks, and says she was experiencing emotions and feelings again.

Lyme disease has long-lasting implications on those who are infected. Even when the tick is removed quickly, the damage can be done. Prevention through observation and covering up is key but, if infected with Lyme disease, there is hope with stem cell therapy in that it can help with the healing process.

R3 Stem Cell Founder Appears on Longstanding Radio Show Stepping In

For over 20 years, Nurse Jackie Tucker has been the host of Stepping In on KSCO in Santa Cruz CA. She discusses current healthcare topics with respected members of the healthcare community nationwide.

When R3 Stem Cell Founder and CEO David Greene, MD, MBA was asked to participate with Jackie on a recent show, he immediately said yes. “This is information people really want to hear, and Jackie’s got a great audience. She’s very professional and her reputation is stellar, so it took me about a nanosecond to say yes!”

Jackie asked questions about PRP and stem cell therapy, including applicability to several conditions. Amniotic stem cell therapy was discussed, along with opportunities for stem cell therapy to treat arthritis, tendonitis, burns, COPD, kidney failure and Alzheimer’s. The show lasted almost an hour.

To hear the entire show, simply click below!

Do Amniotic Stem Cells Work?

amniotic fluid stem cells pros and cons Amniotic stem cells are a mixture of stem cells that can be extracted from the amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane after a pregnant woman has delivered her baby. The amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus during development in the uterus and it is contained by the amniotic membrane.

Since the amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane are collected after the baby is delivered, as they have usually been discarded in the past, there is no danger to the child when doing so. Therefore, the use of stem cells derived from amniotic tissues is considered to lack the ethical problems associated with the use of stem cells derived from embryos collected after induced abortions.

Stem cells that are derived from tissues such as the amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane, as well as those from the bone marrow, are used in medicine for the following reasons:

  • To help stimulate proteins to reduce the inflammatory process in certain conditions that lead to pain, tissue damage, and disability.
  • Differentiating and developing into tissues of the body such as skin, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, and heart and kidney tissue to repair areas damaged by diseases and injuries.

Advantages and disadvantages of amniotic stem cells

Amniotic stem cell pros and cons need to be looked at in order to decide whether using such tissue has benefits that outweigh any risks associated with its administration.

Advantages:

  • The amniotic fluid contains an abundance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that stem from the fetus.
  • These MSCs have a higher expansion potential than the ones derived from the bone marrow which means that more new tissue cells can be derived from the amniotic fluid.
  • These stem cells have an enhanced stability and plasticity compared to adult stem cells allowing them to develop into healthier cells needed for tissue repair.
  • Amniotic stem cells can be used to reconstruct birth defects such as diaphragmatic hernias in children, as well as repairing a premature amniotic membrane rupture during pregnancy.
  • There’s no risk of the patient rejecting the stem cells.
  • The amniotic stem cells contain hyaluronic acid that helps to lubricate the cartilage around joints.

Disadvantages:

  • Amniotic fluid doesn’t contain a lot of embryonic stem cells.
  • If there are pathologies that need to be treated while the mother is still pregnant with the fetus, then an amniocentesis needs to be performed. This is a technique where a needle is inserted into the uterus through the amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid is then collected. This does carry a small risk of causing a spontaneous miscarriage or premature labor.

Efficacy

In one literature review study regarding the most recent progress in stem cell therapies and indications in the specialty of orthopedics, the following observations were made:1

  • Stem cell therapy has been successfully used for managing major orthopedic issues such as bone-joint injuries, ligament-tendon injuries, osteoarthritis-cartilage defects, and femoral head osteonecrosis.
  • Stem cells have been used in bone tissue engineering and were combined with scaffolds to provide better and faster tissue healing.
  • A recommendation was made that more and efficient studies would need to be conducted to evaluate the safety of stem cells.

With that being said, the general consensus looking at patient outcomes is that stem cell therapy is a very safe and effective form of treatment.

Vampire Facials: A New Role for Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy?

stem cell plasma therapy works Stem cell technology has the promise to change medicine forever. From athletes looking to return quickly from tendon injuries that usually require surgery and months of recovery to celebs looking for the next big thing in anti-aging medicine. These two seemingly unrelated areas of medicine are, incredibly, treated by the same new therapy. Enter Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy. Over the past few years, more and more buzz has surrounded the technology in the celeb world as many high profile figures have had what has been dubbed “vampire facials”. The list of figures includes Kim Kardashian, Bar Rafaeli and Stephen Bar. Undergoing simple injections they claim the therapy has anti-aging effects better than botox. But is there any truth in the claims?

What is platelet rich plasma therapy?

To understand whether this stem cell technology has the potential to stop aging, it’s best to have an idea of the biology behind it. Your blood is made up of a variety of different components. The most obvious of this is red blood cells which carry oxygen to muscles and tissues that need it. But there is also plasma, which contains a number of components including platelets – a protein that usually helps the blood clot when you cut yourself and bleed. Their platelets are therefore actively released when you injure yourself and have a number of roles in the healing process.  In platelet-rich plasma therapy, platelets and growth factors (another component of plasma) are taken from the patient’s own blood. They are purified using a centrifuge and then injected back into the patient. This has been found to have regenerative properties and help healing! Using the patient’s own platelets also comes at a huge advantage in that there is no risk of rejection. This is a serious complication of other therapies like blood or organ donation but is avoided by using the patient’s own blood.

 

Does plasma therapy work for aging?

The big question is whether stem cell plasma therapy works as an anti-aging medication. Recent scientific work by Doctors in Verona, Italy suggests that it may. In an article published in September 2017 they found that platelet-rich plasma therapy increased reticular dermis thickness with a fibrotic aspect. In English, that means after injection the skin becomes thicker and fuller because more elastic and collagen fibers were laid down – in effect reversing the aging process on skin! Although this is one of the first studies down on the therapy it is a promising result and backs up the claims made by Kim Kardashian who is a champion of the new therapy.

Joint Pain? Watch Out for Pain in Elbow When Straightening Arm

Pain in Elbow When Straightening Arm Therapy Strength and flexibility are so important on a day to day basis and when there is a restriction of movement in the arm or shoulder, this can be highly detrimental. Any pain in the elbow when straightening arm must be seen by a doctor, although it is commonly experienced for a number of reasons including elbow arthritis. This occurs due to the cartilage wearing out although the injury is another likely cause. The elbow is a much more stable joint than the knee or hip because it is the non-weight bearing but, care should always be taken with all the joints of the body. For any sports-minded individual, elbow pain is common. Where former injuries may have occurred i.e. a fall, a fracture to the elbow or, if the joint has been dislocated, there is the potential for elbow arthritis. Joint mobility and chronic or acute pain will need to be managed and to aid healing, stem cell therapy for elbow may be considered.

Where arthritis is particularly bad, reconstructive surgery may be necessary. It’s important to note that the elbow will never be fully healed to its former condition, this is especially so if there is some degeneration of the joint. This is a problem for sports enthusiasts such as tennis players or for those who enjoy cricket as cartilage damage is common. Medical diagnosis is important, especially when any swelling or pain sensations are experienced within the joint. The elbow may become locked or flexibility greatly reduced. If the diagnosis is not detected early, there can be greater deterioration of the elbow joint as pressure increases on the ulnar nerve. Diagnosis methods include x-ray, CT Scan, and MRI which will highlight any joint abnormalities.

Depending on the extent of the injury, elbow arthritis will be painful. Physical therapy will help improve flexibility and mobility and improve muscle strength helping to restore function. Oral pain medication will be given but steroid injections may also be prescribed. Topical steroid injections are applied directly to the elbow but this does not heal the joint, rather, it controls pain instead for a short term. The fluid composition within the joint can be improved through injecting hyaluronic acid but self-help treatments such as supplements of glucosamine or chondroitin are also useful.

Stem cell therapy is a useful way to help improve healing and in turn, this will improve the quality of life on a day to day basis. Stem cells are responsible for the generation of new cells and can be obtained through fat deposits or the patient’s mesenchymal (MSCs). They help to boost regeneration of the cartilage, secreting anti-inflammatory agents which may decrease pain and existing inflammation. There are no side-effects with stem cell therapy in comparison to the use of steroid injections, it also seems to be tolerated well and this is because the stem cells are taken from the patient, so, there is no risk of rejection. Preventative measures are best when it comes to joint health but early diagnosis of any joint pain will help with the recovery process.

Detection of the Early Signs of Arthritis in Feet is Paramount

If you have noticed pain and swelling starting to occur in the ankle or feet joints and this is starting to impede flexibility and mobility, it’s important to seek medical advice. Early signs of arthritis in feet should always be noted as this will help your doctor to determine the best options for pain relief and treatment. Foot arthritis can be incredibly painful and over time, it’s possible to lose mobility in the joints and for deformity to occur. Most commonly, osteoarthritis is responsible and this usually occurs through natural wear and tear, but, sometimes, surgery is necessary and there is much to consider in respect of pain relief including stem cell injections for foot pain. If the pain is chronic, there are options to consider and it is worth asking your doctor for more information.

Early signs of arthritis in feetIt’s easy to see how painful your feet can become if foot arthritis sets in. There are 28 bones and 30 joints in this part of your body and arthritis can easily occur in the joint between the shinbone and ankle. It can occur in the big toe joint as well and the three joints between the heel bone and inner and outer bones of the foot. Arthritic pain should never be just ignored. Left untreated, it can impact life on a considerable scale and pain can begin to increase from chronic to acute. The doctor will ask a variety of questions to determine how the pain is affecting you but observation is also important. Typically, diagnosis makes use of a gait analysis test. The doctor will monitor how you walk, observing any unnatural gait, sending you for an x-ray, bone scan or even a CT scan if necessary. If walking is impaired or if walking is awkward to compensate for the pain, this can throw the body out of alignment and create other health issues. It is best to seek medical help sooner than later before joint deformity occurs.

There are non-surgical medications that can be prescribed including medication for pain, physical therapy, and even steroids. Steroid injections are provided to those who have an arthritic foot or ankle joints but it is important to note that steroids will not cure the disease but will at least provide some relief from pain. It should also reduce swelling. Only certain types of steroids can be used for this type of condition as it is possible to damage cartilage in these areas. However, medical research has discovered that it is possible to inject stem cells into the areas that are affected and instead of just managing the symptoms, it can promote healing naturally through the production of anti-inflammatory agents which will help to decrease inflammation. It also helps with the lubrication of the joints through secreting hyaluronic acid. Stem cells can help to regenerate damaged joints and develop new healthier cells and injections can even repair cartilage damage. This is crucial to help maintain health and well-being and helps life to become less focused on pain and pain management.

Pain and Numbness After Shingles – Improvement with Stem Cell Therapy

Postherpetic Neuralgia - numbness after shinglesShingles is the medical term for a specific viral infection that causes a painful rash. This rash will appear over a specific area of the body where the previously dormant varicella-zoster virus, that causes chicken-pox, becomes activated in the nerves cells near the spine due to certain factors such as being ill from another infection which causes the immune system to drop. Symptoms such as pain and numbness after shingles may occur and are referred to as postherpetic neuralgia.

Other symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia include a burning sensation, sensitivity of the affected area, and tingling after shingles. The risk factors associated with developing this complication is being an advanced age (over 60), and the area where the shingles initially occurred.

Management of postherpetic neuralgia

There is no cure for postherpetic neuralgia, but there are conservative measures which can be incorporated to help alleviate the symptoms caused by this complication.

These measures include the use of lidocaine or capsaicin skin patches that are applied to the affected area. The latter of these has been shown to be effective for up to three months after the patch is applied. Anti-epileptic medications such as pregabalin and gabapentin help to stabilize the neuronal activity in the nerve cells resulting in a decrease in the symptoms. Antidepressant medications such as amitryptiline and duloxetine have shown to affect the way pain is sensed by the body, so these also help to bring about a relief of symptoms.

If these medications aren’t effective, then opioid medications such as codeine and tramadol may be prescribed. These drugs do have the potential to result in dependence though which can lead to addictive behavior, so these are potential concerns that need to be weighed against the benefit of the medication to the patient.

Stem cell therapy for postherpetic neuralgia

Stem cells are primitive cells that undergo differentiation into different tissues of the body such as bone, blood, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. They are therefore responsible for the repair of damaged tissues but as one gets older, the body loses the ability to attract stem cells to complete the recovery process. Stem cell therapy has been shown in many clinical research trials to be an extremely effective form of treatment in patients who have experienced injuries to these tissues.

Numerous studies have shown that the intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) help with relieving pain caused by neuropathic problems. MSCs are known to release anti-inflammatory compounds that help to modulate pain in affected individuals.

Postherpetic neuralgia is considered a neuropathic condition because the nerve cells are affected to elicit the mentioned symptoms. Therefore, it stands to reason that stem cell therapy in patients with postherpetic neuralgia should be able to repair damaged nerve tissue, and MSC administration can produce anti-inflammatory effects to reduce the pain, numbness and burning sensation caused by this complication of shingles.

Stem cell therapy is only known to have minor side-effects associated it such as headaches. It is not associated with any other major issues or complications and is, therefore, a very safe form of treatment.

Innovative Therapy for Pain on Inside of Elbow

Inflammation of the tendon (tendonitis) is the most common cause of golfers and tennis elbow (pain on inside of elbow and outside of the elbow, respectively). The reason why golfers and tennis elbow occur is due to repetitive movements where the tendons around the elbow persistently rub over the bony aspects of the joint. This occurs when performing activities such as swinging a golf club or tennis racquet, or when performing normal activities such as shaking hands, opening a door, or lifting up objects.

Pain on inside of elbow - Elbow TendonitisSigns and symptoms of elbow tendonitis    

Elbow tendonitis can be an extremely painful condition that can cause disability in patients to the point where they cannot perform their normal daily activities.

Affected individuals will complain of severe pain over the inside or outside aspects of the elbow, depending on which tendons are affected, and this can be associated with tenderness and swelling of the joint. There may also be limited mobility of the elbow with a decreased range of motion. Pain in the joint may also refer up and/or down the arm, with pain being experienced in the shoulder and/or wrist joints, respectively.

Management of elbow tendonitis

Elbow tendonitis can heal by itself with supportive measures such as resting the limb of the affected joint, applying cold compresses to the tender area, and by using an elbow support or strap. Resting the wrist joint is actually part of the protocol of golfer’s and tennis elbow treatments because when this joint is rested, the muscle and tendons in the forearm rest and can recover over a shorter period of time. Anti-inflammatory medications are used to help offer pain relief by reducing the inflammatory response in the tendons of the affected elbow.

If these conservative golfer and tennis elbow treatments are not effective, then physical therapy and even surgery may be indicated. Before surgery is warranted though, innovative therapies can be initiated.

Platelet-rich plasma and stem cell therapy

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), derived from the patient’s own blood, is a safe and effective therapy in the treatment of elbow tendonitis. The PRP is administered to the patient via an injection and this promotes tissue repair in the damaged tendon. This process involves the platelet cells stimulating the release of growth factor and stem cells from the body which is essential for tissue repair and natural healing.

Stem cells derived from the bone marrow were used in a previous study that demonstrated the usefulness of surgery followed by stem cell administration for managing severe and persistent cases of tennis elbow. The outcomes of the patients who were administered stem cells were an early return to daily activities following surgery, and a reduction in complications on their follow-up visits. Tendon repair was evident when the tissue was observed through ultrasound techniques.

Stem cells have also been derived from adipose (fat) tissue. These cells take longer to be harvested from adipose tissue, but they can be stored and used at a later stage. The stem cells collected from fat are, like PRPs, derived from the patient and does not involve the harvesting cells from embryos.

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