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Disease Awareness Page for R3 Stem Cell – Multiple Sclerosis

 

Multiple Sclerosis

What is it?

Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS). It causes demyelination of the covers of the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. This demyelination disrupts the ability of the nervous system to send and receive symptoms between its parts, and that leads to several symptoms, including physical and mental problems, partial blindness, muscle weakness, others.

Sometimes, multiple sclerosis occurs in bouts, which means that the individual experiences symptoms followed by relief, and then a reoccurrence. In between these bouts, sometimes all the muscular and nerve symptoms disappear completely.

The nervous system and the myelin sheath

The nervous system is the network of nerves in the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the control centre, and it coordinates all the actions that take place in the body. The spinal cord is the source of all the nerves, and it can be seen as the major channel of communication between the brain and the rest of the body.

Together, the brain and spinal cord from the Central Nervous System, and they coordinate the actions and reactions including sensation (sight, touch, taste, smell, sound) and motor function (movement of any parts of the body). Because the brain and spinal cord are to central to bodily function, any damage to the brain or spinal cord leads to a series of severe symptoms in the individual, and that’s why multiple sclerosis is very debilitating.

The myelin sheath in the central nervous system is another protective covering, but it is responsible for protecting the nerve fibres. It surrounds the axons of the nerves and aids them in the transmission of impulses. Damage to the myelin sheath not only exposes the nerves, but it also slows down the rate of nerve conduction — the more advanced the damage, the slower the impulses.
To protect itself from injury, the CNS is protected by the skull and vertebral column. However, diseases that affect these bony structures can also affect the CNS. The severer the attack on these protective coverings, the more debilitating the effects tend to be on the body. Examples of conditions like these include spinal arthritis, spondylolisthesis, and disc hernias.

This slowed rate of transmission accounts for several of the symptoms seen in multiple sclerosis, as we’ll see shortly.

 

The progression of multiple sclerosis

Even though multiple sclerosis has been confirmed to be an autoimmune disease, it is unclear what triggers it. Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the body’s immune system turns on itself and begins attacking tissues in the body. In Multiple sclerosis, it attacks the myelin sheath of the nerves.

Other autoimmune disorders that affect the Nervous System include Guillain-Barre syndrome and Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Some others affect other parts of the body besides the brain and spinal cord, like rheumatoid arthritis

Multiple sclerosis acts via two other mechanisms besides demyelination—forming lesions, and causing inflammation. The disease is progressive, which means that it leads to more damage in the CNS and more severe symptoms as time goes on. The disease is not yet fully understood, and as a result, research is still being conducted on slowing down and stopping its progression (more on this under “treatment”).

What causes multiple sclerosis?

The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. However, it has been liked to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There still isn’t an explanation of how these contribute to the progression. Such environmental factors include infectious agents like microbes as well as living in a particular geographical location.

How common is it, and who is at risk?

Multiples sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. In 2010, it was estimated that about 2-2.5 million people and multiple sclerosis in the world. The prevalence in each part of the world is different from other parts. Since the cause is still unknown, its prevalence can only be assessed once it begins.

In Africa, the prevalence is about 0.5 per 100,000. It is 2.8 per 100,000 of the population in Southeast Asia, 8.3 per 100,000 in North and South America. In Europe, about 80 in 100,000 people are known to develop multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis is not considered a hereditary condition. However, it has been linked with some generic factors which are shown to increase the chances of getting the condition. People whose relatives develop multiple sclerosis have a higher chance of developing the condition than people whose relatives do not. Additionally, the chances are higher with close relatives.

Risk factors

Because the cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, risk factors are difficult to determine. However, based on the information thus far, some of the risk factors of multiple sclerosis could include the following:

  • Having a family member with multiple sclerosis
  • Exposure to certain microbes (this risk factor is theoretical and not yet confirmed)
  • Individuals who reside in areas farther from the equator are also likely to develop the condition.
  • The data shows that white people have the highest risks of getting multiple sclerosis

The symptoms of multiple sclerosis are those associated with deficits in the nervous system, and they could range from visual impairments to sensory problems. The specific symptoms that present depend on the areas of the nervous system attacked by the disease.
What are the symptoms?

The more common symptoms include:

  • Impaired or complete loss of sensation. Examples of impaired sensation include tingling sensations, pins and needles, as well as numbness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Blurred vision and other visual problems
  • Hyperreflexia or hyporeflexia. This means that normal reflexes like the knee jerk reflex are either more pronounced or diminished compared to normal
  • Difficulty with movement and balance
  • Speech impairments
  • Problems swallowing
  • Chronic pain
  • Bladder and bowel incontinence
  • Problems with thinking and recollection

There are several more symptoms of multiple sclerosis, and as mentioned earlier, they depend heavily on the part of the brain and spinal cord that was affected.

How is it diagnosed?

A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is made based on the symptoms presented. There are no blood markers that can be screened; neither can any nerve conduction tests yield any useful result. This limitation in diagnosis options are due to two factors:

  • It is a lesion in the Central Nervous System.
  • Its symptoms are present in other medical conditions as well

Imaging scans are also used to check for areas of demyelination. Testing the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can also indicate inflammations in the CNS. The markers for these inflammations are shown to be present in 75% to 85% of people who have the condition.

Besides non-invasive means of diagnosis like scans and CSF tests, a tissue biopsy can also be conducted to confirm the diagnosis.

What are the treatment options available for multiple sclerosis?

There is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis, and so, the treatment is focused on recovery from attacks, since they sometimes occur in bouts. The treatment is also focused on slowing down the progression of the disease and managing the symptoms that result.

Treatment for symptoms

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis, like muscle weakness and impaired sensation, can be treated with therapy, either physiotherapy or occupational therapy. (insert physiotherapy citation). This would include stretching and strengthening exercises to maintain movements and muscle function. The symptoms may also be treated with muscle relaxants, analgesics, and antibiotics.

Treatment to slow the progression

The drug called ocrelizumab is the primary drug in the United states used to treat multiple sclerosis and prevent its progression. Others include

  • Beta interons to reduce the frequency of relapses
  • Drugs like Copaxone to block the immune system’s attack on the myelin sheaths.

 

Learn More about ongoing clinical studies sponsored by R3 Stem Cell HERE.

 

References

The cause is unknown: Compston A, Coles A (October 2008). “Multiple sclerosis”. Lancet.372 (9648): 1502–17. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61620-7.PMID 18970977.

Berer K, Krishnamoorthy G (November 2014). “Microbial view of central nervous system autoimmunity”. FEBS Letters. 588 (22): 4207–13. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.04.007. PMID 24746689.

World Health Organization (2008). Atlas: Multiple Sclerosis Resources in the World 2008 (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 15–16. ISBN 92-4-156375-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2013.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350274

https://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/multiple-sclerosis/treatment/

https://www.physio-pedia.com/MS_Multiple_Sclerosis

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