Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis affects around 200 million people worldwide, most of them women. With osteoporosis, the inner bone structure begins to diminish, making the bones less dense, thin, and weakened. People with osteoporosis have a risk for fractures, and hip fracture is the most common injury for individuals with this bone condition. A new treatment may be able to reverse osteoporosis, which involves stem cell therapy.
Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could reduce the susceptibility of fractures. In addition, it has been found to restore stem cell function, changing the mineral density and increasing cell numbers. This therapy can be carried out by use of the patient’s own stem cells, or from stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood tissues or donated amniotic fluid.
Animal Studies involving Stem Cell Treatment
Researchers theorize that defective mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for osteoporosis. Transplantation of healthy stem cells could prevent, treat, and/or reverse the disease. In a recent study, scientists injected osteoporotic mice with MSCs from healthy mice. The stem cells transformed (changed) into bone cells in this study, and after six months, the mice’s bone became healthy and functional.
At the Scripps Research Institute, researchers found a therapeutic approach that will help develop bone-forming cells in people with osteoporosis. The study focused on PPAR, a protein that can impact stem cells come from bone marrow. These cells differentiate into other cell types. The researchers found that partial loss of PPAR in mice could lead to increased bone formation. They designed a new compound that could repress PPAR activity. After treating human stem cells with a biological compound, the scientists noted an increase in osteoblast (bone cells) formation.
Stem cells are found to be ideal for the treatment of bone diseases. In a study from McGill’s Faculty of Medicine, researchers discovered that stem cells turn into bone cells. They found that the process of differentiation involved IFN gamma-related genes, and the bone cells could stimulate and produce IFN gamma. Both in-vitro and in-vivo results showed that IFN gamma was important in the growth process of bone.
Bone Marrow vs. Adipose Tissue
After transplantation of MSCs, the cells result in bone mass reduction, and help with bone formation. They work by two possible mechanisms: homing to a damaged site and then changing into bone-forming cells, and/or acting in a paracrine manner by secreting growth factors that help resident cells start to repair degenerated tissue and bone. Impairment of stem cell functionality and microenvironment adds to increased osteoclast activity and decreased bone. Stem cells from bone marrow have been proven to increase pro-inflammatory regulatory factors.
In a study involving rabbits, researchers found that bone marrow-derived stem cells improved formation of bone in the osteoporotic subjects. Regarding adipose-derived stem cells, researchers have found the cells can be expanded to differentiate into bone cells. There are more stem cells per ounce in adipose tissue, and it is a good source of treatment tissue, as it is easily removed from the body using gentle liposuction. With rabbit models, scientists have found that stem cells enhance bone regeneration due to their osteogenic differentiation and worth through paracrine mechanisms and growth factors.
Bieback K, Brinkmann I. Mesenchymal stromal cells from human perinatal tissues: From biology to cell therapy. World J Stem Cells. 2010;2:81–92.
Cho SW, Sun HJ, Yang JY, Jung JY, Choi HJ, An JH, Kim SW, Kim SY, Park KJ, Shin CS. Human adipose tissue-derived stromal cell therapy prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mouse. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1067–78.
Diao Y, Ma Q, Cui F, Zhong Y. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: osteogenesis in vivo as seed cells for bone tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;91:123–31.
Karahuseyinoglu S, Cinar O, Kilic E, Kara F, Akay GG, Demiralp DO, Tukun A, Uckan D, Can A. Biology of stem cells in human umbilical cord stroma: in situ and in vitro surveys. Stem Cells. 2007;25:319–31.
Kremer R, Duque G, Huang DC, et al. Autocrine Regulation of Interferon gamma in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Plays a Role in Early Osteoblastogenesis. Stem Cells, (in press)
McElreavey KD, Irvine AI, Ennis KT, McLean WH. Isolation, culture and characterisation of fibroblast-like cells derived from the Wharton’s jelly portion of human umbilical cord. Biochem Soc Trans. 1991;19:29s.
Sanvoranart T, Supokawej A, Kheolamai P, U-Pratya Y, Klincumhom N, Manochantr S, Wattanapanitch M, Issaragrisil S. Bortezomib enhances the osteogenic differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow and placental tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;447:580–5.
Yen BL, Huang HI, Chien CC, Jui HY, Ko BS, Yao M, Shun CT, Yen ML, Lee MC, Chen YC. Isolation of multipotent cells from human term placenta. Stem Cells. 2005;23:3–9.